W. R. Zemlin Memorial Web Site

Larynx Part One

Skip Navigation

Text only
Home  •  Larynx 1  •  Larynx 2  •  Central Nervous System  •  Skull  •  Respiratory System

Graphic version
Home  •  Larynx 1  •  Larynx 2  •  Central Nervous System  •  Skull  •  Respiratory System

Note: Slide titles link to associated graphic slide pages.

Location of the larynx and associated structures as seen in a sagittal section of the head.

  1. First cervical vertebra (atlas)
  2. Dens of second cervical vertebra
  3. Epiglottis
  4. Body of hyoid bone
  5. Aryepiglottic fold
  6. Apex of arytenoid cartilage ( corniculate cartilage)
  7. Esophagus
  8. Trachea
  9. Vocal folds

* Illustration from The Study Guide/Workbook to accompany Speech and Hearing Science; Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition, Eileen Zemlin and W.R. Zemlin

Slide 2:
Male neck, showing location of thyroid protuberance.

Slide 3:
Female neck, thyroid protuberance usually not a prominent landmark.

Slide 4:
Beginning of removal sequence.

Note supraclavicular nerves (white), superficial veins of neck (blue), submandibular salivary gland (green), thyroid notch, and sternocleidomastoid muscle.

Slide 5:
Lateral view of the same stage of dissection as in previous slide no. 4 demonstrating the same landmarks. Nerves are white, veins blue,
and arteries red.

Slide 6:
Ventral view with superficial veins and nerves removed, demonstrating sternocleidomastoid, omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles. Also shown are parts of the sternal and clavicular portions of the pectoralis major muscle.

Slide 7:
Lateral view of the same stage of dissection as in previous slide no.5 demonstrating the same landmarks. Shows carotoid sheath.

Slide 8:
Lateral view with carotid sheath removed demonstrating carotid artery, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve, superior thyroid artery and submandibular salivary gland. Arteries are red, veins are blue, nerves are white, and glandular tissue is green.

Slide 9:
Ansa hypoglossi (white) or ansa cervicalis supplying strap muscles of the neck.

Slide 10:
Blood supply to larynx. Note internal juglar vein, common carotid artery, superior thyroid artery, superior larygeal artery and nerve, vagus nerve, lymph gland, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, and digastric muscle (anterior belly).

Slide 11:
Stylohyoid ligament (hooked) and thyrohyoid muscle. The stylohyoid ligament appears much like a piece of half-cooked spaghetti. Here it courses in company of the stylohyoid muscle. The anterior belly of the digastric is shown on the left.

Slide 12:
Thyroid gland (green), sternothyroid sectioned and reflected, vagus nerve (white), and carotid artery (red). Note loop in superior laryngeal artery.

Slide 13:
Ventral view, everything removed revealing cricothyroid, sternothyroid and thyrohyoid muscles.

Slide 14:
Lateral view. Same stage of dissection as in previous slide no. 13.

Slide 15:
Middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors – dorsal view.

Slide 16:
Middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors – lateral view. Also shown, omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles.

Slide 17:
Dorsal view of pharynx opened by longitudinal incision demonstrating connective tissue lining.

Slide 18:
Connective tissue lining pharynx shown in previous slide was removed — showing dorsal view of larynx including posterior cricoarytenoid, arytenoideus, corinculate cartilage, cuneiform cartilage, posterior margin of the thyroid cartilage including superior and inferior horns.

Slide 19:
Tracheal ring, view from above.

Slide 20:
Cross-sectional macrograph of neck showing trachea, esophagus and
thyroid gland.

Slide 21:
Trichrome micrograph of ciliated columnar epithelium.

Slide 22:
Tracheal specimen mounted on spindle. The next cartilage to be examined is the cricoid, so-named because of its resemblance to a signet ring. A cricoid cartilage on your finger doesn’t look like a signat ring at all — it looks like a cricoid cartilage on your finger.

Slide 23:
Cricoid cartilage on finger.

Slide 24:
Cricoid cartilage, lateral view. Landmarks include the arch, posterior quadrate lamina, cricoarytenoid articular facet, and cricothyroid articular facet.

Slide 25:
Cricoid cartilage — as seen in perspective from above. Note the arch, posterior quadrate lamina, cricoarytenoid articular facet, and cricothyroid articular facet.

Slide 26:
Cricoid from behind. Note slope angle and shape of cricoarytenoid
articular facet.

Slide 27:
Arytenoid cartilage, anterolateral view. Note remnants of vocal ligament, the vocal process, muscular process, corniculate cartilage, arcuate crest, and triangular fovea.

Slide 28:
Arytenoid cartilage from beneath. Note muscular process and corniculate cartilage. Note also the concave nature of the articular facet on the muscular process. The vocal process can be seen as well.

Slide 29:
Articulated arytenoid and cricoid cartilages as seen from behind. Note the well developed posterior cricoarytenoid ligament.

Slide 30:
Cricoarytenoid ligament, medial edge, as seen from above.

Slide 31:
Thyroid cartilage, lateral view. Note superior and inferior tubercles on
lamina, oblique line, superior and inferior horns. This might be called a classical specimen.

Slide 32:
Thyroid cartilage, frontal view. Note foramen thyroideum.

Slide 33:
Thyroid cartilage in perspective from behind. Note foramen thyroideum. This raises the question — Is the thyroid cartilage exclusively an embryonic derivative of the 4th branchial arch, or is it a derivative of the 4th and 5th arches? Is forman evidence of incomplete union of the two arches, or can the foramen be explained by the presence of the blood vessels?

Slide 34:
Double foramina.

Slide 35:
Thyroid cartilage, lateral view, demonstrating oblique tendon.

Slide 36:
Thyroid cartilage, lateral view, demonstrating oblique tendon.

Slide 37:
Trichrome micrograph of oblique tendon. Blue is tendon, red is muscle. This is strong supportive evidence that what is often erroneously called the oblique line on the thyroid lamina is actually a tendon that bridges the superior and inferior tubercles.

Slide 38:
Thyroid cartilage demonstrating agenesis of superior and inferior
horns unilaterally.

Slide 39:
Thyroid cartilage demonstrating agenesis of superior horn.

Slide 40:
Thyroid cartilage oddity.

Slide 41:
Articulated laryngeal skeleton.

Slide 42:
Posterior ceratocricoid ligament.

Slide 43:
Probe points to another example of the ceratocricoid ligament.

Slide 44:
Laryngeal skeleton, posterior view.

Slide 45:
Another example of a laryngeal skeleton, posterior view.

Slide 46:
Ventral view of laryngeal skeleton, 68 year old female. Note asymetry.

Slide 47:
Laryngeal skeleton, left side. Note cricotracheal fusion.

Slide 48:
Middle cricothyroid ligament, note fused tracheal rings.

Slide 49:
Hyoid bone. Note body, major and minor horns.

Slide 50:
Hyoid bone. Note body, major and minor horns.

Slide 51:
Laryngeal skeleton complete, frontal view. Note hyoid bone and
thyrohyoid ligament.

Slide 52:
Laryngeal skeleton, lateral view. Note foramen in thyrohyoid membrane. Usually the superior laryngeal artery, vein, and nerve gain access to the internal larynx through this foramen. There are exceptions, however.

Slide 53:
Superior view of larynx, without epiglottis. Note arytenoid cartilages and vocal ligaments.

Slide 54:
Superior view of larynx, with epiglottis. Medial boundary of vocal fold is covered by conus elasticus.

Slide 55:
Sagittal section. Conus elasticus removed on the left half. Part of thyroarytenoid muscle and most of vocal ligament can be seen in relation to vocal process of arytenoid cartilage.

Slide 56:
Sagittal section. Conus elasticus, quadrangular membrane removed exposing the thyroarytenoid muscle and vocal ligament.

Slide 57:
Sagittal section with conus elasticus removed, demonstrating the
laryngeal ventricle.

Slide 58:
Vocal fold, lateral cricoarytenoid as seen in medial view.

Slide 59:
Sagittal section demonstrating thyroarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid and arytenoideus muscles.

Slide 60:
Sagittal section. Thyroarytenoid muscle removed to demonstrate the
vocal ligament.

Slide 61:
Larynx, posterior view. Right posterior cricoarytenoid muscle removed demonstrating arytenoid and corniculate cartilages in situ.

Slide 62:
Larynx, posterior view, demonstrating posterior cricoarytenoid muscle.

Slide 63:
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle with well-defined vertical bundle.

Slide 64:
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle with well-defined bipennate lateral bundle.

Slide 65:
Undissected larynx, posterior view, demonstrating posterior cricoarytenoid
and arytenoideus muscles. Note vertical bundle on the posterior
cricoarytenoid muscle.

Slide 66:
Posterior view demonstrating arytenoideus and posterior
cricarytenoid muscles.

Slide 67:
Oblique arytenoideus (unstained).

Slide 68:
Transverse arytenoideus muscle (unstained).

Slide 69:
Cricothyroid muscle, showing pars recta and pars oblique.

Slide 70:
Posterior portion of thyroid cartilage has been reemoved revealing cricothyroid muscle.

Slide 71:
Larynx, ventral view, demonstrating cricothyroid muscle and middle cricothyroid ligament.